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ഇപ്പോള്‍ കൂടുതല്‍ വിഭവങ്ങളുമായി ബയോ വിഷന്‍ വെബ്സൈറ്റ് . സന്ദര്‍ശിക്കുക

Wednesday, November 30, 2011



                                                      WORLD AIDS DAY THEME

The theme for this year’s World AIDS Day is “Getting to Zero - Zero New HIV Infections. Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS Related Deaths”. The theme was announced on 9 September 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa. This theme is backed by the United Nations “Getting to Zero” campaign and runs until 2015. It builds on last year’s successful World AIDS Day “Light for Rights” initiative encompassing a range of vital issues identified by key affected populations.
Zero AIDS-related Deaths
Dr. Leacock said under this “zero” the Caribbean needs need to push for access to treatment for everyone as a fundamental human right to health and access, not only for free or affordable medication but also food which is needed to take the medication.
Zero New Infections
Dr Leacock noted that the Caribbean needs to start talking more “this multiple partner syndrome that we continue to glorify and recognise as it is almost suicidal behaviour. We need to value ourselves and our loved ones enough to love, protect and respect having safer sexual practices.” She lamented that the data on new infections tells us that work in this area is far from over and more needs to be done to aggressively and creatively address this in the Caribbean. “I think this is particularly relevant as a theme for the Caribbean. This means we need to dramatically revolutionise our media messaging and use new messengers to help us reduce sexual transmission of HIV by half by 2015,” she added.
Zero Stigma and Discrimination
Stigma and Discrimination (S and D) continue to be the twin handicaps to all the work being done to halt the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. “We still judge people living with HIV and many still feel the piercing effects of S and D which can be more painful thanHIVitself”Dr..Leacock.said.
She shared her thoughts on why she believes there is only one Caribbean country with bold persons living with HIV (PLHIV) who have publicly disclosed their status and are involved in media campaigns.



Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Important facts about the spread of AIDS include:
  • AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages 25 - 44 in the United States, down from number one in 1995.
  • The World Health Organization estimates that more than 25 million people worldwide have died from this infection since the start of the epidemic.
  • In 2008, there were approximately 33.4 million people around the world living with HIV/AIDS, including 2.1 million children under age 15.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening infections and cancers.
Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that usually do not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS.
HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.
The virus can be spread (transmitted):
  • Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex
  • Through blood -- via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S.) or needle sharing
  • From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby in her breast milk
Other methods of spreading the virus are rare and include accidental needle injury, artificial insemination with infected donated semen, and organ transplantation with infected organs.
HIV infection is NOT spread by:
  • Casual contact such as hugging
  • Mosquitoes
  • Participation in sports
  • Touching items that were touched by a person infected with the virus
AIDS and blood or organ donation:
  • AIDS is NOT transmitted to a person who DONATES blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used.
  • However, HIV can be transmitted to a person RECEIVING blood or organs from an infected donor. To reduce this risk, blood banks and organ donor programs screen donors, blood, and tissues thoroughly.
People at highest risk for getting HIV include:
  • Injection drug users who share needles
  • Infants born to mothers with HIV who didn't receive HIV therapy during pregnancy
  • People engaging in unprotected sex, especially with people who have other high-risk behaviors, are HIV-positive, or have AIDS
  • People who received blood transfusions or clotting products between 1977 and 1985 (before screening for the virus became standard practice)
  • Sexual partners of those who participate in high-risk activities (such as injection drug use or anal sex)
AIDS begins with HIV infection. People who are infected with HIV may have no symptoms for 10 years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptom-free period. If the infection is not detected and treated, the immune system gradually weakens and AIDS develops.
Acute HIV infection progresses over time (usually a few weeks to months) to asymptomatic HIV infection (no symptoms) and then to early symptomatic HIV infection. Later, it progresses to AIDS (advanced HIV infection with CD4 T-cell count below 200 cells/mm3 ).
Almost all people infected with HIV, if they are not treated, will develop AIDS. There is a small group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called nonprogressors, and many seem to have a genetic difference that prevents the virus from significantly damaging their immune system.
The symptoms of AIDS are mainly the result of infections that do not normally develop in people with a healthy immune system. These are called opportunistic infections.
People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV and are very susceptible to these opportunistic infections. Common symptoms are:
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Sweats (particularly at night)
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
Note: At first, infection with HIV may produce no symptoms. Some people, however, do experience flu-like symptoms with fever, rash, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes, usually 2 - 4 weeks after contracting the virus. Some people with HIV infection stay symptom-free for years between the time when they are exposed to the virus and when they develop AIDS.
  1. See the article on safe sex to learn how to reduce the chance of catching or spreading HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
  2. Do not use illicit drugs and do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs, where you can get rid of used syringes and get new, sterile ones. These programs can also provide referrals for addiction treatment.
  3. Avoid contact with another person's blood. You may need to wear protective clothing, masks, and goggles when caring for people who are injured.
  4. Anyone who tests positive for HIV can pass the disease to others and should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. Infected people should tell any sexual partner about their HIV-positive status. They should not exchange body fluids during sexual activity, and should use preventive measures (such as condoms) to reduce the rate of transmission.
  5. HIV-positive women who wish to become pregnant should seek counseling about the risk to their unborn child, and methods to help prevent their baby from becoming infected. The use of certain medications dramatically reduces the chances that the baby will become infected during pregnancy.
  6. The Public Health Service recommends that HIV-infected women in the United States avoid breast-feeding to prevent transmitting HIV to their infants through breast milk.
  7. Safer sex practices, such as latex condoms, are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission. HOWEVER, there is a risk of acquiring the infection even with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.
The riskiest sexual behavior is receiving unprotected anal intercourse. The least risky sexual behavior is receiving oral sex. There is some risk of HIV transmission when performing oral sex on a man, but this is less risky than unprotected vaginal intercourse. Female-to-male transmission of the virus is much less likely than male-to-female transmission. Performing oral sex on a woman who does not have her period has a low risk of transmission.
HIV-positive patients who are taking antiretroviral medications are less likely to transmit the virus. For example, pregnant women who are on effective treatment at the time of delivery, and who have undetectable viral loads, give HIV to their baby less than 1% of the time, compared with 13% to 40% of the time if medications are not used.
The U.S. blood supply is among the safest in the world. Nearly all people infected with HIV through blood transfusions received those transfusions before 1985, the year HIV testing began for all donated blood.
If you believe you have been exposed to HIV, seek medical attention IMMEDIATELY. There is some evidence that an immediate course of antiviral drugs can reduce the chances that you will be infected. This is called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and it has been used to prevent transmission in health care workers injured by needlesticks.
There is less information available about how effective PEP is for people exposed to HIV through sexual activity or injection drug use, but it appears to be effective. If you believe you have been exposed, discuss the possibility with a knowledgeable specialist (check local AIDS organizations for the latest information) as soon as possible. Anyone who has been sexually assaulted should consider the potential risks and benefits of PEP.


Tuesday, November 29, 2011



More educational games & videos on Cell Division at  


Cell division on contrast microscope
More educational games & videos on Cell Division at  

Monday, November 28, 2011

Friday, November 25, 2011


Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 different chemicals, with nicotine being the primary component. Nicotine is a naturally occurring colorless liquid that comes from the tobacco plant. It is considered an addictive drug, making cigarette smoking the most prevalent form of nicotine addiction in the United States.
Cigarette smoking is a cause of many preventable diseases worldwide. The effect nicotine has on the brain and the body is complex. With each cigarette, a smoker takes in approximately 1 to 2 mg of nicotine. The smoker immediately experiences a "high" after exposure to nicotine, due to the drug's stimulation of the adrenal glands and resulting secretion of epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. The rush of adrenaline stimulates the body and causes an increase in blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate.
Nicotine also causes the release of dopamine in the brain; dopamine is a chemical responsible for sensations of pleasure. The release of dopamine causes the smoker to experience a sense of euphoria following nicotine exposure, similar to other psychoactive drugs. The feelings of a "high" and of euphoria enhance nicotine's addictive effect.
Repeated exposure to nicotine results in the development of tolerance, the condition in which higher doses of a drug are required to produce the same stimulating effects. When an adequate level of nicotine is not maintained, the smoker will experience symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
These symptoms include decreased heart rate, difficulty concentrating, nervousness, headaches, increased appetite and weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depression. While these symptoms will diminish over time, the adverse effects of nicotine withdrawal make it difficult for most people to quit smoking.

                                                TOXIC SUBSTANCES

                                          IF YOU MIND;      DON’T  …..
                              FOR BETTER               FOR EVER

                                                 WITH GOOD        FAITH , 
                                                               from    bio-vision 

                                 More: on below posts
                                            smoking experiment
                                            baby smoker
                                            smoking article
                                            smoking interwiew   



Wednesday, November 23, 2011



How Smoking Affects Your Body
There's hardly a part of the human body that's not affected by the chemicals in the cigarettes you smoke. Let's take a tour of your body to look at how smoking affects it.
Starting at the Top
As a smoker, you're at risk for cancer of the mouth. Tobacco smoke can also cause gum disease, tooth decay and bad breath. The teeth become unsightly and yellow. Smokers may experience frequent headaches. And lack of oxygen and narrowed blood vessels to the brain can lead to strokes.
Lungs and Bronchi
Moving down to your chest, smoke passes through the bronchi, or breathing tubes. Hydrogen cyanide and other chemicals in the smoke attack the lining of the bronchi, inflaming them and causing that chronic smoker's cough. Because the bronchi are weakened, you're more likely to get bronchial infections. Mucus secretion in your lungs is impaired, also leading to chronic coughing. Smokers are 10 times as likely to get lung cancer and emphysema as nonsmokers.
Smoking and the Heart
The effects of smoking on your heart are devastating. Nicotine raises blood pressure and makes the blood clot more easily. Carbon monoxide robs the blood of oxygen and leads to the development of cholesterol deposits on the artery walls. All of these effects add up to an increased risk of heart attack. In addition, the poor circulation resulting from cholesterol deposits can cause strokes, loss of circulation in fingers and toes and impotence.
Smoking and the Body's Organs
The digestive system is also affected. The tars in smoke can trigger cancer of the esophagus and throat. Smoking causes increased stomach acid secretion, leading to heartburn and ulcers. Smokers have higher rates of deadly pancreatic cancer. Many of the carcinogens from cigarettes are excreted in the urine where their presence can cause bladder cancer, which is often fatal. High blood pressure from smoking can damage the kidneys.
The Results
The health effects of smoking have results we can measure. Forty percent of men who are heavy smokers will die before they reach retirement age, as compared to only 18 percent of nonsmokers. Women who smoke face an increased risk of cervical cancer, and pregnant women who smoke take a chance with the health of their unborn babies.
But the good news is that when you quit smoking your body begins to repair itself. Ten years after you quit, your body has repaired most of the damage smoking caused. Those who wait until cancer or emphysema has set in aren't so lucky—these conditions are usually fatal. It's one more reason to take the big step and quit now.
How Smoking Affects Your Mind
·      Mary smokes to relax when she's feeling tense.
·      Bob smokes to feel more alert when he's feeling dull.
·      Others smoke when they're depressed or bored, or to overcome feelings of anger or grief.
How can a mere cigarette be so many things to so many people? The answer lies in the chemicals in cigarettes and the powerful psychological effects they have.
Nicotine—A Stimulant
Nicotine, the chemical that makes addicts out of cigarette smokers, is a stimulant with properties similar to those of cocaine and amphetamine (speed). Nicotine provides the pick-me-up that smokers feel. It increases heart rate, blood pressure and breathing rate, and makes the smoker feel more alert. Unfortunately these effects wear off after 20 minutes or so and the smoker is left craving another pick-me-up.
Acetaldehyde and Carbon Monoxide—Sedatives
Acetaldehyde, a byproduct of both cigarette smoke and alcohol, has some sedative properties. The carbon monoxide in cigarettes makes you feel dull the way you would in a stuffy room with not enough air. These chemicals seem to dampen some people's feelings of tension, anger or strong emotion.
Other Psychological Effects
For many, the act of smoking itself—pausing in one's work, lighting up, exhaling a certain way—becomes a comforting ritual in itself. The smoker may be involved in a private fantasy that relieves feelings of boredom and meaninglessness. Smoking may go hand in hand with other activities, such as drinking coffee or alcohol or eating dessert. These "triggers" are why quitting smoking involves more than just kicking the nicotine habit.
The Force of Addiction
Sooner or later everyone who smokes does so to relieve the craving for nicotine—a powerfully addictive drug. The addicted body sends messages of uneasiness and need to the conscious mind until the smoker gives in and lights up.
Understanding Is Power
Take a close look at the feelings that make you want a cigarette and those that YOU have after YOU light up. Understanding these feelings will put you in charge when you're ready to quit smoking.

Warning: Smoking Can Kill Your Sex Life

"Since we put them on nicotine, they've
lost interest in anything else..."

We've all seen the ads. Perhaps it's a rugged cowboy reining in his horse at the top of a hill overlooking all of Montana to have a smoke—the very picture of virility. But the truth is quite different, even though it's not often mentioned in pamphlets about the dangers of smoking. Did you know that men who smoke are 50 percent more likely to suffer from impotence than men who do not smoke?
Nicotine and Impotence
Nicotine acts as a vasoconstrictor. That is, it constricts the arteries and blood vessels—including those that are responsible for a man's erection. Nicotine also lowers testosterone and other hormone levels in the blood. And it increases the concentrations of fatty acids in the blood, leading to clogged arteries and further restricting blood flow to the genitals.
What About Women?
Women who smoke also have cause for concern. There's evidence that smoking can interfere with a woman's ability to have an orgasm. Nicotine can also damage ovaries, causing menstrual abnormalities and decreased estrogen production. It can lead to early menopause with such side effects as increased aging and vaginal dryness.
Smoking and the Pill
If you're on the pill, the news is even worse. Women who smoke have a greatly increased risk of heart disease. For instance, women between 30 and 39 years of age who smoke and take the pill are 10 times as likely to have a stroke or a fatal heart attack as nonsmokers. Talk about smoking killing your sex life!
A Question of Attractiveness
While we're on the subject of smoking and your sex life, consider what smoking does to your sexual attractiveness. Bad breath, smelly hair and clothes, and yellow teeth and fingers are not exactly a turn-on. When you give up smoking you immediately become more attractive to your nonsmoking friends and coworkers.
Perhaps the very real dangers of cancer and heart disease seem remote when you're young and healthy. But your sexual enjoyment is something that smoking could affect right now or in the very near future. It's just one more reason to get out of the nicotine habit.

Facts About Cigar Smoking
Since 1993, the use of cigars in the United States has increased by 34 percent. Previous Surgeon General's Reports on the health consequences of smoking presented clear evidence that cigar smoking represents a significant health risk and is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The following are estimates of cigar smoking reported in the United States and the health risks attributed to cigar use.
·      Nearly 4.6 billion cigars were used in 1996; the second consecutive year in which the cigar industry exceeded a billion dollars in sales.
·      Production of cigars is at its highest level since the mid-1980s. An estimated 1.5 billion small cigars were manufactured in 1996, an increase of 4 percent from 1995.
·      An estimated 6 million U.S. teenagers (26.7 percent) 14­19 years of age -- 4.3 million males (37 percent) and 1.7 million females (16 percent) -- smoked at least one cigar within the past year. Rates of cigar use did not vary by region within the United States.
·      U.S. students in grades 9­12 who smoked cigarettes or used smokeless tobacco products also were more likely to report smoking cigars. Nearly three-fourths of male and one-third of female cigarette and smokeless tobacco users reported smoking at least one cigar in the past year.
·      The 1982 Surgeon General's Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking: Cancer concluded that cigar smoking causes laryngeal cancer, oral cancer, esophageal cancer, and lung cancer. Cigar smokers have a 4­10 times risk of dying from laryngeal, oral, and esophageal cancers
Quit Smoking

Friday, November 18, 2011





The human body is composed of millions of cells that vary in size, shape, and function. Cells are the building blocks of all the different tissues within the body.
In healthy tissues, new cells are created during cell division, a process called mitosis. When cells become old, they "self-destruct" and die, a process called apoptosis. A delicate balance must exist between the rate at which new cells are created and the rate at which old cells die. Cancer develops when the balance is disrupted and cells grow out of control. This disruption can result from uncontrolled cell growth or loss of a cell's ability to self-destruct, resulting in a mass of cells, or a tumor.
A benign, or non-cancerous tumor, is the erratic growth of normal-appearing cells. These cells are contained at the original site of growth. However, malignant (cancerous) cells can migrate, or metastasize, to another part of the body via the circulatory or lymphatic systems, and form new tumors at these locations.
Cancers are named after the site where the cancer began, which is referred to as the primary site. If lung cancer spreads to the brain, the brain tumor is considered metastatic lung cancer--not brain cancer. The brain tumor is considered the secondary site.


Thursday, November 17, 2011



On the occasion of the INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF BATS 2011, Bio-Vision Presents an article ‘ALL ABOUT BATS’
The United Nations Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats (EUROBATS) have joined together to celebrate the Year of the Bat.
"Together with Bats" 






                      WORLD DIABETIC DAY - NOVEMBER 14 LOGO

Thursday, November 03, 2011



                                    Lion Tailed Macaque
The Lion-tailed Macaque is a diurnal rain forest dweller. It is a good climber and spends a majority of its life in the upper canopy of tropical moist evergreen forests. Unlike other macaques, it avoids humans. In group behavior, it is much like other macaques: it lives in hierarchical groups of usually ten to twenty animals, which consist of few males and many females. It is a territorial animal, defending its area first with loud cries towards the invading troops. If this proves fruitless, it brawls aggressively.
A recent assessment for IUCN reports 3000-3500 of these animals live scattered over several areas in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Lion-tailed Macaque ranks among the rarest and most threatened primates. Their range has become increasingly isolated and fragmented by the spread of agriculture and tea, coffee, teak and cinchona, construction of water reservoirs for irrigation and power generation, and human settlements to support such activities. They don't live, feed or travel through plantations. Destruction of their habitat and the fact that they avoid human proximity, has led to the drastic decrease of their population.
During 1977 to 1980, public concern about the endangered lion-tailed macaque became the focal point of Save Silent Valley, India's fiercest environmental debate of the decade. During 1993 to 1996, fourteen troops of lion-tailed macaque were observed in Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, one of the most undisturbed viable habitats left for the lion-tailed macaque. A self-sustainable single population of 32 groups of lion-tailed macaques occurred in Sirsi-Honnavara, Karnataka, the northernmost population of the species. A local census concluded in 2007, conducted in the Theni District of Tamil Nadu, put their numbers at around 250, which was considered encouraging, because till then, there had not been any records of Lion-tailed Macaques in that specific area. Many zoos take part in breeding programs which help to secure the survival of this species. 368 of these Macaque are reported to live in zoos.



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