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ഇപ്പോള്‍ കൂടുതല്‍ വിഭവങ്ങളുമായി ബയോ വിഷന്‍ വെബ്സൈറ്റ് . സന്ദര്‍ശിക്കുക

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

WORLD AIDS DAY

                                     

                                                      WORLD AIDS DAY THEME


GETTING TO ZERO – WORLD AIDS DAY THEME 2011
The theme for this year’s World AIDS Day is “Getting to Zero - Zero New HIV Infections. Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS Related Deaths”. The theme was announced on 9 September 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa. This theme is backed by the United Nations “Getting to Zero” campaign and runs until 2015. It builds on last year’s successful World AIDS Day “Light for Rights” initiative encompassing a range of vital issues identified by key affected populations.
Zero AIDS-related Deaths
Dr. Leacock said under this “zero” the Caribbean needs need to push for access to treatment for everyone as a fundamental human right to health and access, not only for free or affordable medication but also food which is needed to take the medication.
Zero New Infections
Dr Leacock noted that the Caribbean needs to start talking more “this multiple partner syndrome that we continue to glorify and recognise as it is almost suicidal behaviour. We need to value ourselves and our loved ones enough to love, protect and respect having safer sexual practices.” She lamented that the data on new infections tells us that work in this area is far from over and more needs to be done to aggressively and creatively address this in the Caribbean. “I think this is particularly relevant as a theme for the Caribbean. This means we need to dramatically revolutionise our media messaging and use new messengers to help us reduce sexual transmission of HIV by half by 2015,” she added.
Zero Stigma and Discrimination
Stigma and Discrimination (S and D) continue to be the twin handicaps to all the work being done to halt the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. “We still judge people living with HIV and many still feel the piercing effects of S and D which can be more painful thanHIVitself”Dr..Leacock.said.
She shared her thoughts on why she believes there is only one Caribbean country with bold persons living with HIV (PLHIV) who have publicly disclosed their status and are involved in media campaigns.

                                                                     VIDEO 

                                                                ARTICLE


                                                                AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Important facts about the spread of AIDS include:
  • AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages 25 - 44 in the United States, down from number one in 1995.
  • The World Health Organization estimates that more than 25 million people worldwide have died from this infection since the start of the epidemic.
  • In 2008, there were approximately 33.4 million people around the world living with HIV/AIDS, including 2.1 million children under age 15.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening infections and cancers.
Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that usually do not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS.
HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.
The virus can be spread (transmitted):
  • Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex
  • Through blood -- via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S.) or needle sharing
  • From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby in her breast milk
Other methods of spreading the virus are rare and include accidental needle injury, artificial insemination with infected donated semen, and organ transplantation with infected organs.
HIV infection is NOT spread by:
  • Casual contact such as hugging
  • Mosquitoes
  • Participation in sports
  • Touching items that were touched by a person infected with the virus
AIDS and blood or organ donation:
  • AIDS is NOT transmitted to a person who DONATES blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used.
  • However, HIV can be transmitted to a person RECEIVING blood or organs from an infected donor. To reduce this risk, blood banks and organ donor programs screen donors, blood, and tissues thoroughly.
People at highest risk for getting HIV include:
  • Injection drug users who share needles
  • Infants born to mothers with HIV who didn't receive HIV therapy during pregnancy
  • People engaging in unprotected sex, especially with people who have other high-risk behaviors, are HIV-positive, or have AIDS
  • People who received blood transfusions or clotting products between 1977 and 1985 (before screening for the virus became standard practice)
  • Sexual partners of those who participate in high-risk activities (such as injection drug use or anal sex)
Symptoms
AIDS begins with HIV infection. People who are infected with HIV may have no symptoms for 10 years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptom-free period. If the infection is not detected and treated, the immune system gradually weakens and AIDS develops.
Acute HIV infection progresses over time (usually a few weeks to months) to asymptomatic HIV infection (no symptoms) and then to early symptomatic HIV infection. Later, it progresses to AIDS (advanced HIV infection with CD4 T-cell count below 200 cells/mm3 ).
Almost all people infected with HIV, if they are not treated, will develop AIDS. There is a small group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called nonprogressors, and many seem to have a genetic difference that prevents the virus from significantly damaging their immune system.
The symptoms of AIDS are mainly the result of infections that do not normally develop in people with a healthy immune system. These are called opportunistic infections.
People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV and are very susceptible to these opportunistic infections. Common symptoms are:
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Sweats (particularly at night)
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
Note: At first, infection with HIV may produce no symptoms. Some people, however, do experience flu-like symptoms with fever, rash, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes, usually 2 - 4 weeks after contracting the virus. Some people with HIV infection stay symptom-free for years between the time when they are exposed to the virus and when they develop AIDS.
Prevention
  1. See the article on safe sex to learn how to reduce the chance of catching or spreading HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
  2. Do not use illicit drugs and do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs, where you can get rid of used syringes and get new, sterile ones. These programs can also provide referrals for addiction treatment.
  3. Avoid contact with another person's blood. You may need to wear protective clothing, masks, and goggles when caring for people who are injured.
  4. Anyone who tests positive for HIV can pass the disease to others and should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. Infected people should tell any sexual partner about their HIV-positive status. They should not exchange body fluids during sexual activity, and should use preventive measures (such as condoms) to reduce the rate of transmission.
  5. HIV-positive women who wish to become pregnant should seek counseling about the risk to their unborn child, and methods to help prevent their baby from becoming infected. The use of certain medications dramatically reduces the chances that the baby will become infected during pregnancy.
  6. The Public Health Service recommends that HIV-infected women in the United States avoid breast-feeding to prevent transmitting HIV to their infants through breast milk.
  7. Safer sex practices, such as latex condoms, are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission. HOWEVER, there is a risk of acquiring the infection even with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.
The riskiest sexual behavior is receiving unprotected anal intercourse. The least risky sexual behavior is receiving oral sex. There is some risk of HIV transmission when performing oral sex on a man, but this is less risky than unprotected vaginal intercourse. Female-to-male transmission of the virus is much less likely than male-to-female transmission. Performing oral sex on a woman who does not have her period has a low risk of transmission.
HIV-positive patients who are taking antiretroviral medications are less likely to transmit the virus. For example, pregnant women who are on effective treatment at the time of delivery, and who have undetectable viral loads, give HIV to their baby less than 1% of the time, compared with 13% to 40% of the time if medications are not used.
The U.S. blood supply is among the safest in the world. Nearly all people infected with HIV through blood transfusions received those transfusions before 1985, the year HIV testing began for all donated blood.
If you believe you have been exposed to HIV, seek medical attention IMMEDIATELY. There is some evidence that an immediate course of antiviral drugs can reduce the chances that you will be infected. This is called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and it has been used to prevent transmission in health care workers injured by needlesticks.
There is less information available about how effective PEP is for people exposed to HIV through sexual activity or injection drug use, but it appears to be effective. If you believe you have been exposed, discuss the possibility with a knowledgeable specialist (check local AIDS organizations for the latest information) as soon as possible. Anyone who has been sexually assaulted should consider the potential risks and benefits of PEP.
              

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